logger is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to
location either with a build in instrument or sensor or via external
instruments and sensors. The data logger, but not entirely they are based on a
digital processor. They generally are small, battery powered, portable and
equipped with a microprocessor, internal memory for data storage and sensors.
Some data loggers interface with a personal computer and utilize software to
activate the data logger and view then analyze the collected data, while others
have a local interface device and can be used as a stand alone device.
Computer data logging
data logging is the process of recording events, with an automated computer
program. This process provides an audit trail that can be used to understand
the activity of the system and to diagnose problem. Due to the features of
practical activity for science is always by observation and measurement, with
the help of this process it can expose the student to a variety instrument that
can observe and measure. The results of observation and measurement are
presented in graph and table form after being processed. But now, with the
modern computer technology can now assist this process of handling data.
Computer data logging composed of several main parts such as sensor, interface
box and computer with appropriate software.
is a device that responds to some physical property of the environment by
detecting the physical variation and converted into voltage signal and being recognized
by the interface box. The physical properties of the environment including the
temperature, pressure, light intensity, sound, position, magnetic flux,
voltage, current and others. The interface box is functioned to convert the
voltage signal of the sensor to a digital sensor, which is can be read by the
computer. The interface box very useful for data logging over extended periods
and contain own memory for data storing. Computer with appropriate software is
required so that the computer can interpret and process the signal from the
interface box. Other than that it manages to store, display and analysis data.
What are the advantages of using data
of the primary advantages of using data loggers is the ability to automatically
collect datas on a 24 hour basis. An experiment that conducted using data
logger can be repeated or stopped at any time as most of the work is taken over
by the data logger. Besides that, two experiments can be conducted
simultaneously. By this way, teacher can save time and helps the students to
overcome variety difficulties method and drawing graph manually. By using this
technology, students are also allowed to compare the results or graph with
other groups and pose the questions. This can increase the students
understanding about the subject. Less work needed to be done by the students.
Other than that, this computer-assisted data logging allows the students to
concentrate on scientific inquiry and development of problem solving skill.
This enable experiment to be done in a small group thus the learning process
becomes more meaningful. It encourages the students to do discussion on the
progress of the experiment and allow higher ordered thinking. Thus, by using
computer data logging, it increased interpreting skills enhances scientific
thinking, creativity and problem solving ability.
What are disadvantages of data
are still some disadvantages on the use of data logging in teaching and
learning. One of the disadvantages is data logging breaks down or malfunctions.
This is because some sensors are very sensitive to the highest voltage and the
students may not take precaution during handling this type of sensor and do not
starts use them at the lower voltage at initial. Due to this problem, some data
could be lost or not recorded. Other than that, the equipment can be expensive
for small task. This may caused the sensor provided in teaching and learning
are not enough in number and students need to share in large number of student
for one group and reduced an effective learning. The other disadvantages are,
the equipment will only take the readings at the data logging interval which
has been set up. If something unexpected happens, between recordings, the data
will not collected. The unexpected event could be like the sensor falls while
conducting experiment, electric power failure, etc.
What is catalyst and how it affects
the rate of reaction?
this experiment, the teacher has use data logger to conduct an experiment about
the effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction. The pressure sensor is used to
measure the production of oxygen gas produced. A catalyst can be defined as a
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Catalyst can speeds
up a chemical reaction but is not consumed by the reaction. In order for
chemical reactants to become products, the species involved in any reaction
must undergo a rearrangement of chemical bonds. If a reaction has a low rate,
that means the molecules combine at a slower speed than a reaction with a high
rate. In this experiment, hydrogen peroxide is used to react with the catalyst.
The higher the concentration enzyme catalase, the higher the amount of oxygen, released by the
destroyed hydrogen peroxides. This is because, the higher the enzyme catalase, the
higher rate of colliding collision between enzyme catalase and hydrogen
peroxide, more hydrogen peroxide being destroyed and released oxygen gas.
Oxygen is given off much faster if the hydrogen peroxide is concentrated than
if it is dilute.
Statement: You are given two different pictures
about the ways for student to their lecturer room which is located on the 6th
floor. Observe the picture carefully.
What can you observe from the
Based on the picture, which
one is faster? Give reason.
What substance have similar
representation with the elevator for this situation? And state its function .
What if there are two
elevators provided and what can you relate it with the time take for student to
arrive to the 6th floor.
In picture 1.0, the student
use the stairs to get to level 6 while in picture 2.0, those students, use an
elevator to get to level 6.
Based on these two ways, with
an elevator will quickly get over with the stairs. This is because, lift
provide an alternative pathway for the students to reach faster to get to level
6 compared by used the stairs.
Catalyst. Substance that provides an alternative
pathway to increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering their activation
energies. However catalyst does not cause a reaction to occur, it only
increases the rate of the reaction that can occur even if the catalyst is
The two elevators will make
the students arrive faster to the upper floor because when one of the elevator
is being used, they can get into the other one.
1.Teacher explained today’s
Use a computer and gas
Pressure Sensor to measure the production of oxygen gas as hydrogen peroxide is
destroyed by the enzyme catalase or peroxidase at various enzyme catalase
Measure and compare the
initial rates of reaction for this enzyme when different concentrations of
enzyme catalase react with H202.
To study the relationship
between H202 and enzyme catalase.
Four test tube
Vernier O2 Gas Sensor
Test tube rack
3% hydrogen peroxide
Student needs to plan an experiment to determine the effect of catalyst on the
rate of reaction.
Student has to construct a hypothesis for this experiment.
Student should know the effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction.
Teacher will help the student to determine the variable involved.
Teacher may give these instructions to start the experiment by using data
the Oxygen Gas Sensor to the computer interface. Prepare the computer for data
collection by opening the file “02 (O2) Enzyme” from the Advanced
Biology with Vernier
folder of LoggerPro.
2. Click ‘Length’ menu .
3.Change the length to 180 s, then click
four test tubes in a rack and label them 1, 2, 3 and 4.
each test tube with 3 ml of water and 3 ml of 3% of .
the plastic tubing of the pressure sensor with the gentle half turned.
the enzyme catalase reaction as follow:
1 drop of enzyme catalase into test tube 1
b. Quickly stopper the
Swirled the test tube gently
d. Connect the other
plastic tubing to the top of the stopper.
start the data collection. Continue to swirled 3 minutes of data collection.
f. Once, data collector is
finished, removed the stopper from the top of the test tube.
determine the rate at which oxygen was produced, click analyze menu and choose
curve fit, and then click pressure.
down fit equation menu and choose linear, then click ‘ok’.
10.The slope will represent the
rate at which oxygen was produced.
the experiment with different enzyme catalase concentration with 2, 3 and 4
drops of enzyme catalase into test tube 2, 3 and 4 labeled test tubes.
completing the experiment, you can show all rums of experiment by choose ‘Run
4’ and then click ‘All runs’.
13. Compared all the graphs.
Which type of
catalyst that being used in this experiment?
concentration of enzyme catalase having the highest rate of reaction?
What type of
gas being produced?
four graphs and give reasons.
catalyst. This is because a positive type of catalyst will increasethe rate of
drops of enzyme catalase.
the four graphs, we can see that the graph for 4 drops of enzyme catalase is
more slope followed by the 3 drops of enzymes catalase, 2 drops of enzymes and
the last one is graph for 1 drop of enzyme catalase. From this results it shows
that the higher concentration of enzyme catalase, the higher the pressure of
oxygen gas being detected by the pressure sensor, the graph also more slope. In
conclusion, the higher the concentration of enzyme catalase, the higher the
production of oxygen gas
Statement: There are clothes that dirty with
oily food residue. Which one is better to wash the cloth that dirty with oily
food residue either the larger amount of powder detergent or the small amount
of powder detergent? Explain.
Cloth 2 is clean better because it use
the larger amount of powder detergent to clean the cloth that dirty with oily
food residue. The increase amount of powder detergent would increase the rate
of reaction to occur. The cloth 1 is slow reaction occur because the small
amount of the powder detergent is use to clean a cloth. The detergent contains
protein enzymes that classified as proteases. These enzymes increase the
cleaning action of household detergent by accelerating the hydrolysis of oily
food residues, so that they could be more rapidly dispersed and emulsified in
water. The rate of reaction in hydrolysis of food residue is increase due the
larger amount of the detergent is use. The enzyme proteases are photolytic
enzymes that degraded protein by cleaving the peptide bonds, thus assisting in
the removal of protein-based stain such as blood and many types of food.
integrated the use of data logging in teaching and learning is very useful.
This is because it can help to develop logical understanding of the abstract
concept and at the same time they can obtain confirmation on the truthfulness
of the underlying process. Apart from that we can polish student thinking
skill, communication skill, be more creative and innovative, making decision
skill, etc. From all the skills stated, we can achieve the vision 2020 as the
student will be more creative and innovative to accomplish the development. The
students also able to think out of the box, as they can applied all the theory
practically and get clearer picture about the topic. From this method, it will
help them for not just aiming to excel in examination but also applied all the
theory they had learnt into daily life as to improve the quality of life.
1.Computer data logging.
Achieved on November 25, 2012 at
To understand how simulation can integrate in teaching and learning
To differentiate between the theory and simulation in teaching and learning
To understand the concept of the simple nitrogen cycle.
1.0 What is a Model?
define as the process of producing a model that are representation of the
construction and working of some system of interest. Shannon said model is a
representation of an object, a system or an idea in some from other than of the
entity itself. There are two types of models such as physical models and mathematical
models. The physical model such as the scale models, prototype plants and so
on. While the mathematical model are analytical models, linear programs,
simulation and so on. The model is used to enable the analyst to predict the
effect of changes to the system. Other than that, the model should not to be so
complex and it is impossible to understand and experiment with it. A good model
is a between realism and simplicity. The important issues in modeling are the
model validity. Model validation technique involved the simulation the model
under known input condition and the comparing model output with system output.
2.0 What is a Simulation?
of a system define as the operation of a model of the system. The model can be
reconfigured and experimented because it is impossible, too expensive or
impractical to do on the system which it portrays. The operation of the model
can be studied and from this properties concerning the behavior of the actual
system can be inferred. The simulation is used before existing the system is
altered and a new system is built. The simulation is used to reduce the chances
of failure to meet specifications and to prevent under or over-utilization of
resources. The simulation also used to optimize system performance. The
simulation designed to replicate a real-life situation. The students will
assume the roles as they analyze data, make decisions and solve the problems
inherent in the real situation. As the simulations is proceeds, the students
respond to changes within the situation by studying the consequences of their
decisions and predicting future problems.
The simulation will include the time for
reflection and processing that will allow the students to share their
experiences, asses their learning and evaluate their assessments against the
intended outcomes of the simulations. Another, the simulation accomplishing the
objectives of the simulation activity, students often become interested in the
real world system on which it is based and what makes it work the way it does.
There are two types of simulation models such as static simulation model and
dynamic simulation model. A static simulation model is a representation of a
system at a particular point in time. The static simulation model usually refer
as a Monte Carlo Simulation. In Monte Carlo Simulation used to consider numerically determining the value
of π and involve the imagine throwing dart at square. It also can repeated as
many times as needed to get arbitrary precision. While a dynamic simulation
model is a representation of a system as it evolves over time. However, within
these two classifications, a simulation may be deterministic or stochastic. A deterministic
simulation model is one that contains no random variables and stochastic
simulation model contains one or more variables.
are three types of the simulations such live simulations, virtual simulations
and constructive simulations. The live simulation are involved human or
equipment and activity in setting where they would operate for real. The
example of the live simulations are the testing a car battery using an
electrical tester. The virtual simulations involved human and equipment in a computer-controlled
setting. Time is discrete steps and allow users to concentrate on the important
stuff to speak. The flight simulator are the example of this simulations. The
constructive simulations not involve human or equipment as participants. Rather
than by time, they are driven more by the proper sequencing of events. The
science-based simulations are the example of the constructive simulations in
3.0 Steps In Simulation and Model
are steps in simulation and model building such as define an achievable goal
and put together a complete mix of skills on the team. The simulation and model
building also involve the end-user. A students must choose the appropriate
simulation tools and model must appropriate level of details and it must start
early to collect necessary input data. The simulation and model building also
provide adequate and on-going documentation and also develop a pelan for adequate model verification, a
pelan for model validation and a pelan for statistical output analysis. The
define of achievable goal are the goal selection is not cast in concrete and
goal can change with increasing insight. The step put together a complete mix
of skills on the team are the knowledge of the system must under investigation
and the students must know about model formulation and model Programming.
Students also must know about data collection skills and statistical skills
that involves the input data representations and the output data analysis.
Then, students must knows how to design of experiment and managements skills
involved. In the way to choose the appropriate simulations tools, there are
three alternatives exist such as build model in a general purpose language,
general simulation language and use a special purpose simulation package.
the modeling with general purpose language and it also has advantage and
disadvantage. The advantage are the little or no additional software cost and
no additional training involve while the disadvantage are every model start
from scratch, very little reusable code and difficult verification phase
involve. Besides, there are modeling with general simulation language. The
advantage are standardized features often needed in modeling and shorter
development cycle for each model. It also much assistance in model verification
and it very readable code. While the disadvantage are higher software cost is
used and the additional training are required and it also limited portability.
The example of the general purpose
simulation language are GPSS, SIMSCRIPT II.5, MODSIM III, SIMULA, SLAM and
CSIM. GPSS are block-structured language and interpretive execution. The word
view of GPSS are transaction or facilities. SIMSCRIPT II.5 are English-like
problem description language and complete language. The word view of SIMSCRIPST
II.5 are processes, resources and continuous. MODSIM III are modern
object-oriented language and it is modularity compiled programs. SIMULA define
as the compiled program and it word view are in processes. SLAM are the block
structured language and interpretive execution. While CSIM are the
process-oriented language and it is C-based.
4.0 Why Use Modelling and
Simulation in Teaching and Learning?
are many reason to use simulation in the classroom. The first reason are the
simulation is important to promote concept attainment through experiential
practice. Simulations are good in helping students understand the concept or
circumstance. The students are deep learning when use simulations than other
activities. The deep learning are empowers understanding because it not opposed to surface learning, that
requires only memorization but it involved the good understanding. The deep learning are the important of model
building. The deep learning means the students knows the relationships among
variable in a model or models. Simulations allows students to change the value
of parameter and see what variable are important and the effects in variable
when they change in parameters. The simulation is similar with science
laboratory class because the process itself will educates the students to
learns more in this simulation activity. The students can learns scientific
method such as the importance of model building and they know that the
experiments or simulations is a scientific do the work.
simulations have proven their worth many times over in the statistics based
fields. The deep learning are the ability to match simulation results with an
analytically derived conclusion is especially valuable in beginning classes,
where students often struggle with sampling theory. The data issues, sampling
theory and the probability is involved in learn scientific methods. The
simulations helps students understand probability and sampling theory. The
stimulations help students learn to reflect on and extend knowledge by actively
engaging in students-student or instructor-students conversations.
Instructional simulations by their very nature cannot be passive learning. The
students also can transfer knowledge to new problems and situations and the
students also understanding and refining their own thought processes. The
advantages of simulations are the activity become enjoyable, motivating
activity and the simulations also promotes the critical thinking of students.
The disadvantage of simulation are the preparations time and the costs of the
activity and the assessment is more complex than some traditional teaching
are useful teaching strategy for illustrating a complex and changing situation.
In the simulation strategy, the students are involved in this activity and it
trigger students to enjoy themselves in this simulation strategy. Simulation will
help teacher to teach in class better and it is less complex than the
situations they should represents. The teaching with data simulations provides
students opportunities to simulate data in order to answer a particular
research question or to solve a problem. There are a few way to use simulation
such as physical simulation of a process. In this physical simulation, the
repeated sample is used to stimulate a sampling distribution. Next, the
simulating a game or situation to estimate the chance of certain and better
outcome. This is a good way to find good strategy.
using the probability models to simulate data that to estimate the chance of
particular outcome, maybe more interesting outcome. We also can stimulate data
while varying parameters to illustrate a concept or deepen students
understanding of the process of the learning in classroom. The students
confidence and the level understanding is observed. Other than that, simulation
are use to generate data under a certain theory to test the understanding of
students in certain subjects in classroom. Students are doing a simulation when
they use a model behavior to gain a better understanding of that behavior. For
example, when students create a electric circuit with an online program, they
are learning about physics theory by simulating an actual physical set-up. The
simulations may conducted with computers, pencils and paper or physical models
of some natural phenomenon.
5.0 When to Use Simulation and
Modeling In Teaching and Learning?
is used in teaching and learning method can considered whenever the curricular
material can be learner or student learning of material can be evaluated when
their participation in real world situation in which their choice of actions
determines the outcome of the situations.
The teaching with simulation require the time commitment and carefully
organizational scheme for the teacher. The teacher need to designing or
adapting the simulations to fit the unique needs a group of students, teaching
content and skill necessary to participate in the simulation. Teacher also must
observing students interactions, monitoring and adjusting the simulation
as assessing students learning,
evaluating the simulations as learn5ing experience and presenting the learning
activity with a great excitement. Teacher must allow time throughout the
simulation for discussion. This is because the teacher much do the work to the
simulation being run, teacher time during the simulation ia available for observation
and coaching which are excellent ways to success of the students learning.
Besides, students learn best by
doing and forming concepts through experience. With the simulations, the
students can create system with which students can interact and explore to gain
the understanding of that system. If the students do not understand points,
they can try experimenting with the system and observes the result. The
simulation provide explore that students can explore domains that would
otherwise be too time-consuming, expensive or dangerous. Then, students also
can focus, which they facilitate the removal of complexity and detail from the model
and focusing only on the aspects of the models that are most relevant to the
learning. The visualization are they make it easier to visualize dynamic or
complex parameter involved. The motivation, students motivate by providing
context, encourage active involvement and arouse interest. Lastly, the control
and practice. The control can make students control timing and detail, they can
explore experiment, hypothesize and test the experiment with simulations. The
practice are make students do misconceptions and it also allow students to learn from their mistakes.
6.0 Application in Model and
are application in model and simulation such as
Designing and analyzing manufacturing
Evaluating H/W and S/W requirements for
a computer system
Evaluating a new military weapon systems
Determining ordering policies for an
Designing communications systems and
message protocols for them.
Designing and operating transportation
facilities such as freeways, airports, subways or pots.
Evaluating designs for service
organizations such as hospitals, post office or fast-food restaurants
Analyzing financial or economic systems.
7.0 Design Constructivist lesson
that integrates Modelling and Simulation.
design constructivist lesson that integrate are modeling and simulations are
STELLA software. The STELLA software are offer a practical way to dynamically
visualize and communicate how complex systems and ideas really. The STELLA
software are consists of constructing
mental models and simulating the model in order to draw the conclusions
and make decisions. The next to use model STELLA are students need to search in
Google and click create account. Then,
students need to fill the details and email address and click sign in. After sign in, students can downloads for
window , STELLA trial for 30 days. Then, students need to choose sample model
from the STELLA Trial and the sample can use. The experiments of the simple
nitrogen cycle model and simulation control panel has choose in this experiment
and the experiment is repeated because the parameter is adjusted. The students
need to adjusted the parameter to get the different result of the simple
nitrogen cycle experiment that use simulation techniques.
STELLA software has the model building process that is facilitated by using
structural diagrams which give a visual insight into the elements of the model
and their logical links. Once the models of a particular process are
constructed and all the elements defined and choose correctly then the
operation of the process can be simulated by running the model and the results
produced will tested again to get the correct and reality once. The parameter of the simulation control panel
can adjusted, re-run and tested again. This will provides an interactive
process for model development and improved the simulation. The package of
course allow for the monitoring and output of the numerical values of the
selected parameter but it also has a powerful graphical facility which allow
the changes of any parameter over time to be plotted and plots of any variable
The STELLA software can help students to
better understanding of this experiment and students will get more knowledge
from this experiments. Students can also know the parameter of this experiment
and the result if the parameter is change. In this experiment, teacher will
explain the reason of use this software and the result of used this software.
Teacher also will help students to trigger themselves to conduct this
experiment in repeated. Teacher also explain about simulation and the
relationship of the experiment with the simulation software. Besides, in this
experiment, teacher will give example and students will follow the next
experiment that involved the simulation.
8.0 The Simple Nitrogen Cycle
nitrogen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s atmosphere. All living
things need nitrogen to build proteins and other important body chemicals. The
nitrogen cycle is the main reservoir is the atmosphere, which is about 80
percentage of nitrogen. The Simple Nitrogen Cycle occur when nitrogen cannot be
absorbed directly by the plants and animals until it is converted into the
compounds that they can use. The triple covalent bonds hold two atoms of
nitrogen gas together (N2). Plants cannot use gaseous nitrogen
because they cannot breaks these bonds. The certain types of bacteria are able
to use the free nitrogen in the air to make nitrogen compounds through a
process called nitrogen fixation. The bacteria breaks the bonds in N2 and
use the nitrogen atoms to form ammonium. The nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria live
in aquatic habitats, soils and as components of lichens. The another group of
nitrogen fixing bacteria that live and grows inside structure on the roots are
the nodules on the roots of pea and other legumes, which include beans, clover,
peanuts and peas.
Then plant take up ammonium from
soil and plant use it In the metabolic reactions. The consumes get the nitrogen
after they eating plants that contains nitrogen or the eat one other. The
bacterial and fungal decomposer that and break down wastes and remains return
ammonium to the soil. The process that involves to converts nitrates from
ammonium are the nitrification. This process involved two steps such as the
first step are ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaeans convert ammonium to
nitrite. The second step are the bacteria convert nitrites to nitrates. The
nitrates are taken up and used by producers. The next process are
denitrification process, this occur when the denitrifying bacteria that use
nitrate for energy produce nitrogen gas that escapes into the atmosphere.
The Nitrogen Cycle
9.0 The Graph of the Science Lesson
that Using Modelling and Simulation
graph of the nitrogen cycle that use the simulation control panel are used to
help the students to get the deep learning in the nitrogen cycle experiment. A well done
simulations is constructed to include an extension to a new problem or new set
of parameters that requires students to extend what they have learned in an
earlier context. The graph of the
simulation will shows the parameter involves in the experiment such as in the
nitrogen cycle, the parameter are humification fraction, mineralization
fraction, nitrogen per unit biomass and fraction productivity. Students need to
explore this types of simulation and the get the experiences through this
simulations. The analysis results of the simulations will happen. The analysis
of results are the process of analyzing the simulation outputs to draw
inferences and make recommendation for problem resolution.
Graph 1 : Normal Graph
the graph 1, the relationship on the humification fraction, mineralization fraction,
nitrogen per unit biomass and the fixation productivity is effect for the
distribution of simple nitrogen cycle in the system. This is a normal graph and
it act as the control for other graph. Based on the graph, teacher will explain the
parameter involved in this experiment. Teacher also try to conduct the
experiment that act as the example of the simulation occur in this experiment. The
teacher also must provide sufficient time for students to reflect on and
discuss what they learned from the graph and the simulation.
will help the students and teacher ask the students about the simulation that
occur can make they understand about the nitrogen cycle. This graph is
important to show the different that occur when we change the parameter of
variable that involve in this experiment. The different parameter effect the
graph but there are variable do not give effect if we change it parameter. That parameter are act as the constant
variable in the experiment using simulations. This graph act as control in this
simple nitrogen cycle model using the simulation control panel. Besides, this
graph will help students to better understanding of the simple nitrogen cycle.
From the normal graph, the normal value for the humification fraction are
0.2500 and for mineralization fraction are 0.0500. The nitrogen per unit
biomass are 0.1000 and the normal for fixation productivity are 0.00001. The graph
above show the result are constant for all parameter.
next graph, teacher change the parameter and the result of the graph also change.
The parameter that change in the graph 2 are the humification fraction. This is
mean the effect of the change in humification fraction in nitrogen cycle. If
the parameter of the humification fraction is increase, the nitrogen in humus
also increase and the nitrogen cycle is increase. The bacteria breaks the bonds
in N2 and use the nitrogen atoms to form ammonium. The humification
fraction is increase from 0.2500 to 0.3500. Teacher change the graph of the
parameter because to trigger students about the factor of huminification
fraction on the nitrogen on human in the nitrogen cycle. The change of
mineralization fraction also change if the huminification fraction is changed.
The decrease of nitrogen in organic matter because the bacteria breaks the nitrogen
to form the ammonium. The nitrogen in biomass and the available nitrogen is
constant and no change if the huminification fraction change. The
mineralization fraction is act as the limiting factor because the result show
it is decrease if the huminification fraction is increase. The nitrogen per
unit biomass and fixation productivity is constant variable in graph 2.
Graph 2 : The effect on
humification on Nitrogen Cycle
the graph 2, we can observe the relationship of humification fraction effect on
the distribution of the simple nitrogen cycle on the system. The graph show
that humanification is increase for the early cycle and then it is constant
while the nitrogen in organic cycle decrease early cycle and it is constant.
The process of humification can occur naturally in soil or in the production of
compost. The important of chemically stable humus is thought by some to be
fertility it that provides to soils in both a physical and chemical sense
through some agricultural experts put a greater focus on other features of it
such as its ability to suppress disease.
humification process helps soil to retain moisture by increase microposity and
it also encourages the formation of good soil structure. Humus allows soil that
contain organisms to feed and reproduce and it often described as the life
force of the soil. The humus is a highly complex substances and it is decomposing
organic matter in that the soil. Teacher must explain the why the result is
change and why the simulation give the better explanation about the nitrogen
cycle. The simulation also give the motivation to students to explore more
about this nitrogen cycle and the other factor effect on this nitrogen cycle.
Graph 3 : The effect of the
Mineralization Fraction On Nitrogen Cycle
From the graph 3, the mineralization
fraction is change and the result of the experiment also changed. Teacher run
this graph to observed the change of the mineralization fraction because the
nitrogen in organic matter also change and it is increase. Teacher explain the
result of the graph and teacher also discuss about the huminification fraction
that also change in this experiment. The mineralization is change from 0.1000
to 0.1500. The nitrogen in humus is decrease and the nitrogen in organic matter
is increase. The bacterial and fungal decomposer that and break down wastes and
remains return ammonium to the soil. The process that involves to converts
nitrates from ammonium are the nitrification. This process involved two steps
such as the first step are ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaeans convert
ammonium to nitrite. The second step are the bacteria convert nitrites to
After teacher explain about this
graph, teacher try again and increase the mineralization fraction to the higher
value and the result are observed. Teacher used this way because teacher want
students to observed the humification fraction, nitrogen in humus and the
nitrogen in organic matter. The
humification fraction is act as the limiting factor in graph 3. From the graph
3, the students know more details the relationship of humanification fraction
and the mineralization fraction. The teacher will explain the relationship
between graph 2 and the graph 3. Students will get better understanding about
the nitrogen cycle.
4 : The effect of the nitrogen per unit biomass and fixation productivity.
the graph 4, teacher run the next graph to observed the effect of the nitrogen
per unit biomass and the fixation productivity on the nitrogen cycle. Teacher
explain what is the nitrogen per unit biomass and teacher also explain about
what is the fixation productivity. The graph show that the nitrogen per unit
biomass does not effect the nitrogen in humus and the nitrogen in organic
matter. This is because the nitrogen per unit biomaas is the result of the both
either the nitrogen in humus or the nitrogen in organic matter. The fixation
productivity also same with the nitrogen per unit biomass. The factor that effect on the nitrogen cycle are
the humification fraction and the mineralization fraction.
Teacher discuss the result with students and
ask students to try do the experiments twice because students may confuse about
the result of the graph. This simulation helps students to get better
experience and improve their knowledge. Students must discuss with each other
why the graph is not change with the normal graph. Students also can explore
the sample, for example the nitrogen cycle. This will trigger students to deep
learning of the fixation productivity factor and the nitrogen per unit biomass
factor. The students will ask for teacher about the graph and the teacher must
explain clearly about the reasons of the graph.
modeling and the simulation is easy way to do the experiment. This is because
it is not waste the time but it is safe the time. The modeling and simulation
are used to give the clear explanations for students to better understanding
about the subject either in biology, physics, mathematic and chemistry. The
nitrogen cycle simulation control panel are the constructive simulation because
it not involved human and equipment but it must construct with the STELLA
software, that must be download first. The STELLA software are design to help
students better understanding of the experiment. The STELLA software ia s
simple software and it is easy to use. Students must use this software because
it is free for 30 day. The experiment with Stella software are save and it contain the experiment of
biology subject, physics subject, chemistry subject and mathematic subject.
Teacher must show this software to
all their students because it will help a students. The STELLA software contain
the modelling and the simulation of the experiment. The simulation that use are
involved the factor of parameter. The parameter of the experiment are depend on
the types of the experiment. If the parameter is change, the result will
change. The software can monitor students to get the knowledge and the
experiments can repeated. The software are interesting to use. The STELLA
software are suitable used in this modelling and simulation because it is easy
to explore and retest for the experiment. The effect of modeling and simulation
either increase to use it. During the simulations students perform tasks enable
them to learn or have their learning evaluated. Besides, the students can
participate in the simplified system and learn how the real system operates
without spending the days, weeks or years, it would take to undergo this
experience in the real world.
Other than that, the periodic
simulation provide the opportunity for students to collect their individual
experiences, discuss the general ideas that contain in the simulation and the
relate these ideas to the real world situation. It is important modeling and simulation
in students experience because the simulations helps students get the new
experience when they conduct the experiment with simulation, the parameter
involved, the result and the explanations from teachers is the guide during the
experiment with simulation.
Anu Maria (1997). Introduction to Modelling and
Simulation. University of New York: NewYork. Taken at November 21, 2012 from http://www.inf.utfsm.cl/~hallende/download/Simul-22002/Introduction_to_Modeling_and_Simulation.pdf
Beth Chance & Allan Rossman (2006). Using
Simulation To Teach and Learn Statistics.Californis Polytechnic State
University: United State. Taken at November 23, 2012 fromhttp://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/17/7E1_CHAN.pdf
Jane Dunkel Chilcott (1996). Effective Use Of
Simulation In The Classroom taken at November 30, 2012 fromhttp://www.clexchange.org/ftp/documents/Implementation/IM1996-01EffectiveUseOfSims.pdf